References

Contact lenses for kids – paediatric, parent and practitioner psychology

  1. Huang J, Wen D, Wang Q, McAlinden C, Flitcroft I, Chen H, Saw SM, Chen H, Bao F, Zhao Y, Hu L, Li X, Gao R, Lu W, Du Y, Jinag Z, Yu A, Lian H, Jiang Q, Yu Y, Qu J. Efficacy Comparison of 16 Interventions for Myopia Control in Children: A Network Meta-analysis. Ophthalmol. 2016;123:697-708.
  2. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott L, Chitkara M, Coffey B, Jackson JM, Manny RE, Rah MJ, Prinstein MJ. Randomized trial of the effect of contact lens wear on self-perception in children. Optom Vis Sci. 2009;86:222-32.
  3. Walline JJ, Sinnott L, Johnson ED, Ticak A, Jones SL, Jones LA. What do kids think about kids in eyeglasses? Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008;28(3):218-24.
  4. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Rah MJ, Manny RE, Berntsen DA, Chitkara M, Gaume A, Kim A, Quinn N. Contact Lenses in Pediatrics (CLIP) Study: chair time and ocular health. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:896-902.
  5. Jones LA, Walline JJ, Gaume A, Rah MJ, Manny RE, Berntsen DA, Chitkara M, Kim A, Quinn N, Group CS. Purchase of contact lenses and contact-lenses-related symptoms following the Contact Lenses in Pediatrics (CLIP) Study. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2009;32:157-63.
  6. Efron N, Morgan PB, Woods CA, International Contact Lens Prescribing Survey C. Survey of contact lens prescribing to infants, children, and teenagers. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:461-8.
  7. Lam CS, Tang WC, Tse DY, Tang YY, To CH. Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98:40-5.

Atropine - wonder or weak treatment?

  1. Chua W-H, Balakrishnan V, Chan Y-H et al. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia. Ophthalmol. 2006;113:2285–91.
  2. Chia A, Chua W-H, Cheung Y-B et al. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia: safety and efficacy of 0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.01% doses (Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2). Ophthalmol 2012;119:347–54.
  3. Chia A, Lu Q-S, Tan D. Five-Year Clinical Trial on Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2: Myopia Control with Atropine 0.01% Eyedrops. Ophthalmol 2016; 123;391-9.
  4. Bullimore M, Berntsen D. Low-dose atropine for myopia control: considering all the data. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;136:303.
  5. Tideman JW, Snabel MC, Tedja MS et al. Association of Axial Length With Risk of Uncorrectable Visual Impairment for Europeans With Myopia. JAMA Ophthalmol 2016;134:1355-63.
  6. Yam JC, Jiang Y, Tang SM et al. Low-Concentration Atropine for Myopia Progression (LAMP) Study: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 0.05%, 0.025%, and 0.01% atropine eye drops in myopia control. Ophthalmol 2019;126:113-24.

Axial length measurement - a clinical necessity?

  1. Mutti DO. Endpoints in myopia control studies Ophthal Physiol Opt. 2017:Conference proceedings IMC.
  2. Brennan N, Cheng X, Toubouti Y, Bullimore M. Influence of age and race on axial elongation in myopic children. Optom Vis Sci 2018:Conference proceedings AAO.
  3. Donovan L, Sankaridurg P, Ho A et al. Myopia progression rates in urban children wearing single-vision spectacles. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:27-32.
  4. Tideman JW, Snabel MC, Tedja MS et al. Association of Axial Length With Risk of Uncorrectable Visual Impairment for Europeans With Myopia. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016;134:1355-63.

The why of myopia control

  1. Holden BA, Jong M, Davis S et al. Nearly 1 billion myopes at risk of myopia-related sight-threatening conditions by 2050 - time to act now. Clin Exp Optom. 2015;98:491-3.
  2. Flitcroft DI. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012;31:622-60.
  3. Wu L, Sun X, Zhou X, Weng C. Causes and 3-year-incidence of blindness in Jing-An District, Shanghai, China 2001-2009. BMC Ophthalmol. 2011;11:10.
  4. Iwase A, Araie M, Tomidokoro A et al. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in a Japanese adult population: the Tajimi Study. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1354-62.
  5. World Health Organization. The impact of myopia and high myopia. 2016 Report.
  6. Tideman JW, Snabel MC, Tedja MS et al. Association of Axial Length With Risk of Uncorrectable Visual Impairment for Europeans With Myopia. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016;134:1355-63.
  7. Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N, Lustig RH. The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS One. 2013;8:e57873.

How myopic dioptres are like IOP

  1. Flitcroft DI. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012;31:622-60.
  2. Tideman JW, Snabel MC, Tedja MS, van Rijn GA, Wong KT, Kuijpers RW, Vingerling JR, Hofman A, Buitendijk GH, Keunen JE, Boon CJ, Geerards AJ, Luyten GP, Verhoeven VJ, Klaver CC. Association of Axial Length With Risk of Uncorrectable Visual Impairment for Europeans With Myopia. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016;134(12):1355-63.
  3. Mutti DO. Endpoints in myopia control studies Ophthal Physiol Opt. 2017:Conference proceedings IMC.
  4. Jones-Jordan LA, Sinnott LT, Manny RE, Cotter SA, Kleinstein RN, Mutti DO, Twelker JD, Zadnik K, Ethnicity tCLEo, Refractive Error Study Group. Early Childhood Refractive Error and Parental History of Myopia as Predictors of Myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51(1):115-21.
  5. Chamberlain P. Misight 3-year Clinical results. Presented at BCLA 2017, Liverpool, UK. 2017.

Myopia management message part 1 - expectations

  1. Mutti DO. Endpoints in myopia control studies Ophthal Physiol Opt. 2017:Conference proceedings IMC.
  2. Donovan L, Sankaridurg P, Ho A et al. Myopia progression rates in urban children wearing single-vision spectacles. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:27-32.
  3. Zadnik K, Sinnott LT, Cotter SA et al. (CLEERE Study Group) Prediction of Juvenile-Onset Myopia. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133:683-9.
  4. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M et al. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:1492-500.
  5. Cheng D, Schmid KL, Woo GC, Drobe B. Randomized Trial of Effect of Bifocal and Prismatic Bifocal Spectacles on Myopic Progression: Two-Year Results. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:12-9.
  6. Sankaridurg P, Donovan L, Varnas S et al. Spectacle lenses designed to reduce progression of myopia: 12-month results. Optom Vis Sci. 2010;87:631-41.
  7. Huang J, Wen D, Wang Q et al. Efficacy Comparison of 16 Interventions for Myopia Control in Children: A Network Meta-analysis. Ophthalmol. 2016;123:697-708.
  8. Sun Y, Xu F, Zhang T et al. Orthokeratology to control myopia progression: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0124535.

Myopia management message part 2 - efficacy

  1. Huang J, Wen D, Wang Q et al. Efficacy Comparison of 16 Interventions for Myopia Control in Children: A Network Meta-analysis. Ophthalmol. 2016;123(4):697-708.
  2. Efron N, Morgan PB, Woods CA. International survey of rigid contact lens fitting. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90(2):113-8.
  3. Cheng D, Woo GC, Schmid KL. Bifocal lens control of myopic progression in children. Clin Exp Optom. 2011;94(1):24-32.
  4. Chiang ST, Phillips JR. Effect of Atropine Eye Drops on Choroidal Thinning Induced by Hyperopic Retinal Defocus. J Ophthalmol. 2018;2018:8528315.

Which multifocal soft lens should I choose? Part 1

  1. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K et al. The Incidence of Contact Lens Related Microbial Keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmol. 2008;115:1655-62.
  2. Bullimore MA, Sinnott LT, Jones-Jordan LA. The risk of microbial keratitis with overnight corneal reshaping lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:937-44.
  3. Bullimore MA. The Safety of Soft Contact Lenses in Children. Optom Vis Sci. 2017;94:638-46.

Which multifocal soft lens should I choose? Part 2

  1. Li SM, Kang MT, Wu SS et al. Studies using concentric ring bifocal and peripheral add multifocal contact lenses to slow myopia progression in school-aged children: a meta-analysis. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2017;37:51-9.
  2. Walline JJ, Gaume Giannoni A, Sinnott LT et al. A Randomized Trial of Soft Multifocal Contact Lenses for Myopia Control: Baseline Data and Methods. Optom Vis Sci. 2017;94:856-66.
  3. Cooper J, O'Connor B, Watanabe R et al. Case Series Analysis of Myopic Progression Control With a Unique Extended Depth of Focus Multifocal Contact Lens. Eye Contact Lens. 2017.
  4. Faria-Ribeiro M, Amorim-de-Sousa A, Gonzalez-Meijome JM. Predicted accommodative response from image quality in young eyes fitted with different dual-focus designs. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2018.

Three clinical pillars for myopia management

  1. Zadnik K, Sinnott LT, Cotter SA et al (CLEERE Study Group). Prediction of Juvenile-Onset Myopia. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133:683-9.
  2. Gwiazda J, Bauer J, Thorn F, Held R. A dynamic relationship between myopia and blur-driven accommodation in school-aged children. Vision Res. 1995;35:1299-304.
  3. Charman WN. Near vision, lags of accommodation and myopia. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 1999;19:126-33.
  4. Drobe B, de Saint-André R. The pre-myopic syndrome. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 1995;15:375-8.
  5. Gwiazda J, Thorn F, Held R. Accommodation, accommodative convergence, and response AC/A ratios before and at the onset of myopia in children. Optom Vis Sci. 2005;82:273-8.
  6. Mutti DO, Jones LA, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K. AC/A Ratio, Age, and Refractive Error in Children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:2469-78.
  7. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M et al. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:1492-500.
  8. Yang Z, Lan W, Ge J et al. The effectiveness of progressive addition lenses on the progression of myopia in Chinese children. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 2009;29:41-8.
  9. Narayanasamy S, Vincent SJ, Sampson GP, Wood JM. Impact of simulated hyperopia on academic-related performance in children. Optom Vis Sci. 2015;92:227-36.
  10. Quaid P, Simpson T. Association between reading speed, cycloplegic refractive error, and oculomotor function in reading disabled children versus controls. Graefe's Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013;251:169-87.
  11. Gifford KL GP, Hendicott PL, Schmid KL. Binocular visual function in orthokeratology contact lens wear for myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:ARVO E-Abstract 2683878.
  12. Tarrant J, Liu Y, Wildsoet CF. Orthokeratology Can Decrease the Accommodative Lag in Myopes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4294.
  13. Felipe-Marquez G, Nombela-Palomo M, Palomo-Álvarez C, Cacho I, Nieto-Bona A. Binocular function changes produced in response to overnight orthokeratology. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017;255:179-88.
  14. Gifford KL GP, Hendicott PL, Schmid KL. Near binocular visual function in young adult orthokeratology versus soft contact lens wearers. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2017;40:184-9.
  15. Zhu M, Feng H, Zhu J, Qu X. The impact of amplitude of accommodation on controlling the development of myopia in orthokeratology. Chinese J Ophthalmol. 2014;50:14-9.
  16. Faria-Ribeiro M, Amorim-de-Sousa A, Gonzalez-Meijome JM. Predicted accommodative response from image quality in young eyes fitted with different dual-focus designs. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2018.

Contact lens safety in children

  1. Bullimore MA. The Safety of Soft Contact Lenses in Children. Optom Vis Sci 2017;94:638-646.
  2. Walline JJ, Gaume A, Jones LA et al. Benefits of contact lens wear for children and teens. Eye Contact Lens 2007;33:317-321.
  3. Stapleton F, Keay L, Edwards K et al. The Incidence of Contact Lens Related Microbial Keratitis in Australia. Ophthalmol 2008;115:1655-1662.
  4. Bullimore MA, Sinnott LT, Jones-Jordan LA. The risk of microbial keratitis with overnight corneal reshaping lenses. Optom Vis Sci 2013;90:937-944.
  5. Liu YM, Xie P. The Safety of Orthokeratology--A Systematic Review. Eye Contact Lens 2016;42:35-42.
  6. Sulley A. Fitting children with contact lenses: Part one. Optician 2009;237:26-30.
  7. Wu Y, Carnt N, Stapleton F. Contact lens user profile, attitudes and level of compliance to lens care. Cont Lens Ant Eye 2010;33:183-188.
  8. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Rah MJ et al. Contact Lenses in Pediatrics (CLIP) Study: chair time and ocular health. Optom Vis Sci 2007;84:896-902.
  9. Walline JJ, Lorenz KO, Nichols JJ. Long-term contact lens wear of children and teens. Eye Contact Lens 2013;39:283-289.
  10. Sankaridurg P, Chen X, Naduvilath T et al. Adverse events during 2 years of daily wear of silicone hydrogels in children. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:961-969.
  11. Jeong S, Lemke BN, Dortzbach RK, Park YG, Kang HK. The Asian upper eyelid: an anatomical study with comparison to the Caucasian eyelid. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999;117:907-912.

Four reasons why binocular vision matters in myopia management

  1. Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Hayes JR et al. (CLEERE Study Group) Accommodative Lag before and after the Onset of Myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006;47:837-846.
  2. Mutti DO, Jones LA, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K. AC/A Ratio, Age, and Refractive Error in Children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000;41:2469-2478.
  3. Jones-Jordan LA, Sinnott LT, Manny RE et al. Early Childhood Refractive Error and Parental History of Myopia as Predictors of Myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010;51:115-121.
  4. Xiong S, Sankaridurg P, Naduvilath T et al. Time spent in outdoor activities in relation to myopia prevention and control: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Acta Ophthalmol 2017;95:551-566.
  5. Yang Z, Lan W, Ge J et al. The effectiveness of progressive addition lenses on the progression of myopia in Chinese children. Ophthal Physiol Opt 2009;29:41-48.
  6. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M et al. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003;44:1492-1500.
  7. Cheng D, Woo GC, Schmid KL. Bifocal lens control of myopic progression in children. Clin Exp Optom 2011;94:24-32.
  8. Aller TA, Liu M, Wildsoet CF. Myopia Control with Bifocal Contact Lenses: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Optom Vis Sci 2016;93:344-352.
  9. Huang J, Wen D, Wang Q et al. Efficacy Comparison of 16 Interventions for Myopia Control in Children: A Network Meta-analysis. Ophthalmol 2016;123:697-708.
  10. Zhu M, Feng H, Zhu J, Qu X. The impact of amplitude of accommodation on controlling the development of myopia in orthokeratology. Chinese J Ophthalmol 2014;50:14-19.
  11. Gifford KL, Gifford P, Hendicott PL, Schmid KL. Near binocular visual function in young adult orthokeratology versus soft contact lens wearers. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2017;40:184-189.
  12. Gifford KL, Gifford P, Hendicott PL, Schmid KL. Binocular visual function in orthokeratology contact lens wear for myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017;58:ARVO E-Abstract 2683878.
  13. Tarrant J, Severson H, Wildsoet CF. Accommodation in emmetropic and myopic young adults wearing bifocal soft contact lenses. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2008;28:62-72.
  14. Gong CR, Troilo D, Richdale K. Accommodation and Phoria in Children Wearing Multifocal Contact Lenses. Optom Vis Sci 2017;94:353-360.
  15. Kang P, Wildsoet CF. Acute and short-term changes in visual function with multifocal soft contact lens wear in young adults. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2016;39:133-140.
  16. Tarrant J, Liu Y, Wildsoet CF. Orthokeratology Can Decrease the Accommodative Lag in Myopes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:4294.
  17. Hunt OA, Wolffsohn JS, Garcia-Resua C. Ocular motor triad with single vision contact lenses compared to spectacle lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2006;29:239-245.
  18. Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of Dual-Focus Soft Contact Lens Wear on Axial Myopia Progression in Children. Ophthalmol 2011;118:1152-1161.
  19. Faria-Ribeiro M, Amorim-de-Sousa A, Gonzalez-Meijome JM. Predicted accommodative response from image quality in young eyes fitted with different dual-focus designs. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2018.
  20. Sun Y, Xu F, Zhang T et al. Orthokeratology to control myopia progression: a meta-analysis. PLoS One 2015;10:e0124535.
  21. Li SM, Kang MT, Wu SS et al. Studies using concentric ring bifocal and peripheral add multifocal contact lenses to slow myopia progression in school-aged children: a meta-analysis. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2017;37:51-59.
  22. Gwiazda J, Bauer J, Thorn F, Held R. A dynamic relationship between myopia and blur-driven accommodation in school-aged children. Vision Res 1995;35:1299-1304.
  23. Charman WN. Near vision, lags of accommodation and myopia. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 1999;19:126-133.
  24. Drobe B, de Saint-André R. The pre-myopic syndrome. Ophthal Physiol Opt 1995;15:375-378.
  25. Gwiazda J, Thorn F, Held R. Accommodation, accommodative convergence, and response AC/A ratios before and at the onset of myopia in children. Optom Vis Sci 2005;82:273-278.
  26. Narayanasamy S, Vincent SJ, Sampson GP, Wood JM. Impact of simulated hyperopia on academic-related performance in children. Optom Vis Sci 2015;92:227-236.
  27. Quaid P, Simpson T. Association between reading speed, cycloplegic refractive error, and oculomotor function in reading disabled children versus controls. Graefe's Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2013;251:169-187.

Prescribing Adds For Near Esophoria

  1. Yang Z, Lan W, Ge J et al. The effectiveness of progressive addition lenses on the progression of myopia in Chinese children. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 2009;29:41-48.
  2. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M et al. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:1492-1500.
  3. Aller TA, Wildsoet C. Bifocal soft contact lenses as a possible myopia control treatment: a case report involving identical twins. Clin Exp Optom. 2008;91:394-399.
  4. Aller T. Results of a one-year prospective clinical trial (CONTROL) of the use of bifocal soft contact lenses to control myopia progression [abstract]. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 2006:8-9.
  5. Evans BJW. Detecting binocular vision anomalies in primary eyecare practice. Pickwell's Binocular Vision Anomalies (Fifth Edition). Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2007:12-38.
  6. Evans BJW. Esophoric conditions. Pickwell's Binocular Vision Anomalies (Fifth Edition). Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2007:109-116.

Assessing Near Phoria

  1. Gwiazda J, Bauer J, Thorn F, Held R. A dynamic relationship between myopia and blur-driven accommodation in school-aged children. Vision Res 1995;35:1299-1304.
  2. Nakatsuka C, Hasebe S, Nonaka F, Ohtsuki H. Accommodative lag under habitual seeing conditions: comparison between myopic and emmetropic children. Jap J Ophthalmol 2005;49:189-194.
  3. Drobe B, de Saint-André R. The pre-myopic syndrome. Ophthal Physiol Opt 1995;15:375-378.
  4. Allen PM, O'Leary DJ. Accommodation functions: Co-dependency and relationship to refractive error. Vision Res 2006;46:491-505.
  5. Price H, Allen PM, Radhakrishnan H, Calver R, Rae S, Theagarayan B, Sailoganathan A, O'Leary DJ. The Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study: Variables Associated with Myopia Progression. Optom Vis Sci 2013;90:1274-1283.
  6. Yang Z, Lan W, Ge J et al. The effectiveness of progressive addition lenses on the progression of myopia in Chinese children. Ophthal Physiol Opt 2009;29(1):41-48.
  7. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M et al. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003;44:1492-1500.
  8. Aller TA, Wildsoet C. Bifocal soft contact lenses as a possible myopia control treatment: a case report involving identical twins. Clin Exp Optom 2008;91:394-399.
  9. Aller T. Results of a one-year prospective clinical trial (CONTROL) of the use of bifocal soft contact lenses to control myopia progression [abstract]. Ophthal Physiol Opt 2006:8-9.
  10. Evans BJW. Evaluation of heterophoria. Pickwell's Binocular Vision Anomalies (Fifth Edition). Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2007:58-91.
  11. Evans BJW. Detecting binocular vision anomalies in primary eyecare practice. Pickwell's Binocular Vision Anomalies (Fifth Edition). Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2007:12-38.
  12. Wong EPF, Fricke TR, Dinardo C. Interexaminer Repeatability of a New, Modified Prentice Card Compared with Established Phoria Tests. Optom Vis Sci 2002;79:370-375.

Progressive versus bifocal spectacles - which is best? (Podcast summary)

  1. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M et al. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:1492-500.
  2. Yang Z, Lan W, Ge J et al. The effectiveness of progressive addition lenses on the progression of myopia in Chinese children. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 2009;29:41-8.
  3. Cheng D, Schmid KL, Woo GC, Drobe B. Randomized Trial of Effect of Bifocal and Prismatic Bifocal Spectacles on Myopic Progression: Two-Year Results. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:12-9.
  4. Cheng D, Woo GC, Schmid KL. Bifocal lens control of myopic progression in children. Clin Exp Optom. 2011;94:24-32.
  5. Berntsen DA, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. Study of Theories about Myopia Progression (STAMP) Design and Baseline Data. Optom Vis Sci. 2010;87:823-32.
  6. Smith ELI. Prentice Award Lecture 2010: A Case for Peripheral Optical Treatment Strategies for Myopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:1029-44.
  7. Atchison DA, Li SM, Li H et al. Relative Peripheral Hyperopia Does Not Predict Development and Progression of Myopia in Children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:6162-70.
  8. Chia A, Lu QS, Tan D. Five-Year Clinical Trial on Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2: Myopia Control with Atropine 0.01% Eyedrops. Ophthalmology. 2016;123:391-9.
  9. Lam CS-Y, Tang WC, Lee RP, Chun RK, To CH. Myopia control with multi-segment myopic defocus (MSMD) spectacle lens: a randomised clinical trial. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 2017;37:International Myopia Conference O017.

Prescribing Adds For Accommodation Lag

  1. Gwiazda J, Bauer J, Thorn F, Held R. A dynamic relationship between myopia and blur-driven accommodation in school-aged children. Vision Res. 1995;35:1299-1304.
  2. Nakatsuka C, Hasebe S, Nonaka F, Ohtsuki H. Accommodative lag under habitual seeing conditions: comparison between myopic and emmetropic children. Jap J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:189-194.
  3. Drobe B, de Saint-André R. The pre-myopic syndrome. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 1995;15:375-378.
  4. Allen PM, O'Leary DJ. Accommodation functions: Co-dependency and relationship to refractive error. Vision Res. 2006;46:491-505.
  5. Price H, Allen PM, Radhakrishnan H, Calver R, Rae S, Theagarayan B, Sailoganathan A, O'Leary DJ. The Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study: Variables Associated with Myopia Progression. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:1274-1283.
  6. Bullimore MA, Gilmartin B, Royston JM. Steady-state accommodation and ocular biometry in late-onset myopia. Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances In Ophthalmology. 1992;80:143-155.
  7. Abbott ML, Schmid KL, Strang NC. Differences in the accommodation stimulus response curves of adult myopes and emmetropes. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 1998;18:13-20.
  8. Pandian A, Sankaridurg PR, Naduvilath T et al. Accommodative Facility in Eyes with and without Myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:4725-4731.
  9. Harb E, Thorn F, Troilo D. Characteristics of accommodative behavior during sustained reading in emmetropes and myopes. Vision Res. 2006;46:2581-2592.
  10. Gwiazda J, Grice K, Thorn F. Response AC/A ratios are elevated in myopic children. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 1999;19:173-179.
  11. Gwiazda J, Thorn F, Held R. Accommodation, accommodative convergence, and response AC/A ratios before and at the onset of myopia in children. Optom Vis Sci. 2005;82:273-278.
  12. Mutti DO, Jones LA, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K. AC/A Ratio, Age, and Refractive Error in Children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:2469-2478.
  13. Rosenfield M, Desai R, Portello JK. Do progressing myopes show reduced accommodative responses? Optom Vis Sci. 2002;79:268-273.
  14. Zhu M, Feng H, Zhu J, Qu X. The impact of amplitude of accommodation on controlling the development of myopia in orthokeratology]. Chinese J Ophthalmol. 2014;50:14-19.
  15. Evans BJW. Detecting binocular vision anomalies in primary eyecare practice. Pickwell's Binocular Vision Anomalies (Fifth Edition). Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2007:12-38.

Measuring Accommodative Facility

  1. Gwiazda J, Bauer J, Thorn F, Held R. A dynamic relationship between myopia and blur-driven accommodation in school-aged children. Vision Res. 1995;35:1299-1304.
  2. Nakatsuka C, Hasebe S, Nonaka F, Ohtsuki H. Accommodative lag under habitual seeing conditions: comparison between myopic and emmetropic children. Jap J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:189-194.
  3. Drobe B, de Saint-André R. The pre-myopic syndrome. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 1995;15:375-378.
  4. Allen PM, O'Leary DJ. Accommodation functions: Co-dependency and relationship to refractive error. Vision Res. 2006;46:491-505.
  5. Price H, Allen PM, Radhakrishnan H, Calver R, Rae S, Theagarayan B, Sailoganathan A, O'Leary DJ. The Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study: Variables Associated with Myopia Progression. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:1274-1283.
  6. Bullimore MA, Gilmartin B, Royston JM. Steady-state accommodation and ocular biometry in late-onset myopia. Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances In Ophthalmology. 1992;80:143-155.
  7. Abbott ML, Schmid KL, Strang NC. Differences in the accommodation stimulus response curves of adult myopes and emmetropes. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 1998;18:13-20.
  8. Pandian A, Sankaridurg PR, Naduvilath T, O'Leary D, Sweeney DF, Rose K, Mitchell P. Accommodative Facility in Eyes with and without Myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:4725-4731.
  9. Harb E, Thorn F, Troilo D. Characteristics of accommodative behavior during sustained reading in emmetropes and myopes. Vision Res. 2006;46:2581-2592.
  10. Gwiazda J, Grice K, Thorn F. Response AC/A ratios are elevated in myopic children. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 1999;19:173-179.
  11. Gwiazda J, Thorn F, Held R. Accommodation, accommodative convergence, and response AC/A ratios before and at the onset of myopia in children. Optom Vis Sci. 2005;82:273-278.
  12. Mutti DO, Jones LA, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K. AC/A Ratio, Age, and Refractive Error in Children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:2469-2478.
  13. Rosenfield M, Desai R, Portello JK. Do progressing myopes show reduced accommodative responses? Optom Vis Sci. 2002;79:268-273.
  14. Zhu M, Feng H, Zhu J, Qu X. The impact of amplitude of accommodation on controlling the development of myopia in orthokeratology]. Chinese J Ophthalmol. 2014;50:14-19.
  15. Evans BJW. Detecting binocular vision anomalies in primary eyecare practice. Pickwell's Binocular Vision Anomalies (Fifth Edition). Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2007:12-38.

Measuring Near Lag Of Accommodation

  1. Gwiazda J, Bauer J, Thorn F, Held R. A dynamic relationship between myopia and blur-driven accommodation in school-aged children. Vision Res. 1995;35:1299-1304.
  2. Nakatsuka C, Hasebe S, Nonaka F, Ohtsuki H. Accommodative lag under habitual seeing conditions: comparison between myopic and emmetropic children. Jap J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:189-194.
  3. Drobe B, de Saint-André R. The pre-myopic syndrome. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1995;15:375-378.
  4. Allen PM, O'Leary DJ. Accommodation functions: Co-dependency and relationship to refractive error. Vision Res. 2006;46:491-505.
  5. Price H, Allen PM, Radhakrishnan H et al. The Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study: Variables Associated with Myopia Progression. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:1274-1283.
  6. Bullimore MA, Gilmartin B, Royston JM. Steady-state accommodation and ocular biometry in late-onset myopia. Documenta Ophthalmologica. Adv Ophthalmol. 1992;80:143-155.
  7. Abbott ML, Schmid KL, Strang NC. Differences in the accommodation stimulus response curves of adult myopes and emmetropes. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1998;18:13-20.
  8. Pandian A, Sankaridurg PR, Naduvilath T et al. Accommodative Facility in Eyes with and without Myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:4725-4731.
  9. Harb E, Thorn F, Troilo D. Characteristics of accommodative behavior during sustained reading in emmetropes and myopes. Vision Res. 2006;46:2581-2592.
  10. Gwiazda J, Grice K, Thorn F. Response AC/A ratios are elevated in myopic children. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 1999;19:173-179.
  11. Gwiazda J, Thorn F, Held R. Accommodation, accommodative convergence, and response AC/A ratios before and at the onset of myopia in children. Optom Vis Sci. 2005;82:273-278.
  12. Mutti DO, Jones LA, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K. AC/A Ratio, Age, and Refractive Error in Children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:2469-2478.
  13. Rosenfield M, Desai R, Portello JK. Do progressing myopes show reduced accommodative responses? Optom Vis Sci. 2002;79:268-273.
  14. Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial 2 Study Group for the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Accommodative lag by autorefraction and two dynamic retinoscopy methods. Optom Vis Sci. 2009;86:233-243.
  15. Locke LC, Somers W. A Comparison Study of Dynamic Retinoscopy Techniques. Optom Vis Sci. 1989;66:540-544.
  16. Gwiazda JE, Hyman L, Norton TT et al. Accommodation and related risk factors associated with myopia progression and their interaction with treatment in COMET children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:2143-2151.
  17. Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Hayes JR et al (CLEERE Study Group). Accommodative Lag before and after the Onset of Myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:837-846.

Assessing Fusional Reserves At Near

  1. Gwiazda J, Bauer J, Thorn F, Held R. A dynamic relationship between myopia and blur-driven accommodation in school-aged children. Vision Res. 1995;35:1299-1304.
  2. Nakatsuka C, Hasebe S, Nonaka F, Ohtsuki H. Accommodative lag under habitual seeing conditions: comparison between myopic and emmetropic children. Jap J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:189-194.
  3. Drobe B, de Saint-André R. The pre-myopic syndrome. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 1995;15:375-378.
  4. Allen PM, O'Leary DJ. Accommodation functions: Co-dependency and relationship to refractive error. Vision Res. 2006;46:491-505.
  5. Price H, Allen PM, Radhakrishnan H et al. The Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study: Variables Associated with Myopia Progression. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:1274-1283.
  6. Yang Z, Lan W, Ge J et al. The effectiveness of progressive addition lenses on the progression of myopia in Chinese children. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 2009;29:41-48.
  7. Gwiazda J, Hyman L, Hussein M et al. A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:1492-1500.
  8. Aller TA, Wildsoet C. Bifocal soft contact lenses as a possible myopia control treatment: a case report involving identical twins. Clin Exp Optom. 2008;91:394-399.
  9. Aller T. Results of a one-year prospective clinical trial (CONTROL) of the use of bifocal soft contact lenses to control myopia progression [abstract]. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 2006:8-9.
  10. Evans BJW. Binocular instability. Pickwell's Binocular Vision Anomalies (Fifth Edition). Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2007:92-98.
  11. Evans BJW. Detecting binocular vision anomalies in primary eyecare practice. Pickwell's Binocular Vision Anomalies (Fifth Edition). Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2007:12-38.
  12. My diagnostic and management criteria from 12 years of clinical observations - only level 4-5 evidence so use as you will!

Is Your Myopia Strategy Just OK?

  1. Hyman L, Gwiazda J, Hussein M et al. Relationship of age, sex, and ethnicity with myopia progression and axial elongation in the correction of myopia evaluation trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:977-87.
  2. Myopia stabilization and associated factors among participants in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:7871-84.
  3. Donovan L, Sankaridurg P, Ho A, Naduvilath T, Smith ELI, Holden BA. Myopia progression rates in urban children wearing single-vision spectacles. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:27-32.
  4. Pacella R, McLellan J, Grice K, Del Bono EA, Wiggs JL, Gwiazda JE. Role of genetic factors in the etiology of juvenile-onset myopia based on a longitudinal study of refractive error. Optom Vis Sci. 1999;76:381-6.
  5. Williams KM, Bentham GC, Young IS et al. Association Between Myopia, Ultraviolet B Radiation Exposure, Serum Vitamin D Concentrations, and Genetic Polymorphisms in Vitamin D Metabolic Pathways in a Multicountry European Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:47-53.
  6. Li SM, Li SY, Kang MT et al, Anyang Childhood Eye Study Group. Near Work Related Parameters and Myopia in Chinese Children: the Anyang Childhood Eye Study. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0134514.
  7. Queirós A, González-Méijome JM, Jorge J, Villa-Collar C, Gutiérrez AR. Peripheral refraction in myopic patients after orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci. 2010;87:323-9.
  8. Chen Z, Niu L, Xue F et al. Impact of pupil diameter on axial growth in orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:1636-40.
  9. Tideman JW, Snabel MC, Tedja MS et al. Association of Axial Length With Risk of Uncorrectable Visual Impairment for Europeans With Myopia. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016;134:1355-63.
  10. Charm J, Cho P. High myopia-partial reduction ortho-k: a 2-year randomized study. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:530-9.

Vision With Pediatric Bifocal Contact Lens Wear

  1. Aller TA, Liu M, Wildsoet CF. Myopia control with bifocal contact lenses: a randomized clinical trial. Optom Vis Sci 2016;93:344-52.
  2. Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of dual-focus soft contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children. Ophthalmology 2011;118:1152-61.
  3. Lam CS, Tang WC, Tse DY, et al. Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol 2014;98:40-5.
  4. Sankaridurg P, Holden B, Smith E, 3rd, et al. Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52:9362-7.
  5. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, et al. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom Vis Sci 2013;90:1207-14.
  6. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res 2005;30:71-80.
  7. Kakita T, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52:2170-4.
  8. Santodomingo-Rubido J, Villa-Collar C, Gilmartin B, et al. Factors preventing myopia progression with orthokeratology correction. Optom Vis Sci 2013;90:1225-36.
  9. Wagner S, Conrad F, Bakaraju RC, et al. Power profiles of single vision and multifocal soft contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2015;38:2-14.
  10. Plainis S, Atchison DA, Charman WN. Power profiles of multifocal contact lenses and their interpretation. Optom Vis Sci 2013;90:1066-77.
  11. Bickle KM. Bifocal Lenses in Nearsighted Kids (BLINK) Study. Electronic Thesis or Dissertation: The Ohio State University; 2013. Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/
  12. Greiner KL. Quality of Life of Pediatric Bifocal Soft Contact Lens Wearers. Electronic Dissertation or Theses: The Ohio State University; 2009. Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

My Journey Into Myopia Control

  1. Fulk GW, Cyert LA, Parker DE. A randomized trial of the effect of single vision vs. bifocal lenses on myopia progression in children with esophoria. Optom. Vis. Sci. 2000;77:395-401.
  2. Goss DA, Grosvenor T. Rates of childhood myopia progression with bifocals as a function of nearpoint phoria: consistency of three studies. Optom Vis. Sci. 1990;67:637-640.
  3. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott L, et al. A randomized trial of the effect of soft contact lenses on myopia progression in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis. Sci. 2008;49:4702-4706.
  4. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. Curr Eye Res. 2005;30:71-80.
  5. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. Corneal Reshaping and Myopia Progression. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009.
  6. Smith EL. Prentice Award Lecture 2010: A case for peripheral optical treatment strategies for myopia. Optom. Vis. Sci. 2011;88:1029-1044.
  7. Charman WN, Radhakrishnan H. Peripheral refraction and the development of refractive error: a review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2010;30:321-338.
  8. Aller TA, Laure A, Wildsoet C. Results of a one-year prospective clinical trial (CONTROL) of the use of bifocal soft contact lenses to control myopia progression. Ophthal. Ophthal. Opt. 2006;26:8-9.
  9. Aller TA, Wildsoet C. Bifocal soft contact lenses as a possible myopia control treatment: a case report involving identical twins. Clin. Exp. Optom. 2008;91:394-399.
  10. Cho P, Cheung SW. Retardation of Myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) Study: A 2-Year Randomized Clinical Trial. Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53:7077-7085.
  11. Santodomingo-Rubido J, Villa-Collar C, Gilmartin B, Gutierrez-Ortega R. Myopia control with orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain: refractive and biometric changes. Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53:5060-5065.
  12. Kakita T, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia. Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52:2170-2174.
  13. Hiraoka T, Kakita T, Okamoto F, Takahashi H, Oshika T. Long-term effect of overnight orthokeratology on axial length elongation in childhood myopia: a 5-year follow-up study. Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53:3913-3919.
  14. Charm J, Cho P. High Myopia Partial Reduction Ortho-k: A 2-Year Randomized Study. Optometry & Vision Science. 2013;90.
  15. Swarbrick HA, Alharbi A, Watt K, Lum E, Kang P. Myopia Control during Orthokeratology Lens Wear in Children Using a Novel Study Design. Ophthalmology. 2014.
  16. Paune J, Morales H, Armengol J, Quevedo L, Faria-Ribeiro M, Gonzalez-Meijome JM. Myopia Control with a Novel Peripheral Gradient Soft Lens and Orthokeratology: A 2-Year Clinical Trial. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:507572.
  17. Walline JJ, Greiner KL, McVey ME, Jones-Jordan LA. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. Optom. Vis. Sci. 2013;90:1207-1214.
  18. Anstice NS, Phillips JR. Effect of Dual-Focus Soft Contact Lens Wear on Axial Myopia Progression in Children. Ophthalmology. 2011.
  19. Sankaridurg P, Holden B, Smith E, III, et al. Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results. Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52:9362-9367.
  20. Lam CS, Tang WC, Tse DY, Tang YY, To CH. Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2013.
  21. Konstantakopoulou E, Edgar DF, Harper RA, et al. Evaluation of a minor eye conditions scheme delivered by community optometrists. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e011832.
  22. Flitcroft DI. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 2012;31:622-660.
  23. Evans BJW. Pickwell's Binocular Vision Anomalies. 5th ed. Oxford: Elsevier; 2007.

A Novel Soft Radial Refractive Gradient (SRRG) Contact Lens For Myopia Control

  1. Smith EL. Prentice Award Lecture 2010: A case for peripheral optical treatment strategies for myopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:1029-1044.
  2. Chiang ST-H, Phillips JR, Backhouse S. Effect of retinal image defocus on the thickness of the human choroid. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt.2015.
  3. Loertscher M. Multifocal orthokeratology associated with rapid shortening of vitreous chamber depth in eyes of myopic children. Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 2013;36(2013):e2.
  4. Hiraoka T, Kakita T, Okamoto F, Oshika T. Influence of Ocular Wavefront Aberrations on Axial Length Elongation in Myopic Children Treated with Overnight Orthokeratology. Ophthalmology.2014:1-8.
  5. Parker KE, Marsack JD, Elswick JD, Brunstetter TJ, Applegate R a. Controlled induction of spherical aberration with custom soft contact lenses. Clin Exp Optom. 2009;92(3):283-288.
  6. Cheng X, Chehab K, Brennan NA, Jingu X. Controlling myopia progression with positive spherical aberration in soft contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90(E-abstract 130252.)
  7. Gifford P, Li M, Lu H, Miu J, Panjaya M, Swarbrick HA. Corneal versus ocular aberrations after overnight orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:439-447.
  8. Tarrant J, Liu Y, Wildsoet CF. Orthokeratology Can Decrease the Accommodative Lag in Myopes. In: ARVO Meeting Abstracts.2009:4294.
  9. Gwiazda JE, Hyman L, Norton TT, et al. Accommodation and related risk factors associated with myopia progression and their interaction with treatment in COMET children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:2143-2151.
  10. Price H, Allen PM, Radhakrishnan H, et al. The Cambridge Anti-myopia Study: variables associated with myopia progression. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90(11):1274-1283.
  11. Berntsen DA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Zadnik K, Group CS. Accommodative lag and juvenile-onset myopia progression in children wearing refractive correction. Vision Res. 2011;51:1039-1046.
  12. Rosen R, Lundstrom L, Unsbo P, Lundström L, Unsbo P. Sign-dependent sensitivity to peripheral defocus for myopes due to aberrations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:7176-7182.
  13. Cheng H, Barnett JK, Vilupuru AS, et al. A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation. J Vis. 2004;4:272-280.
  14. Atchison DA. Recent advances in measurement of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes. Clin Exp Optom. 2005;88:5-27.
  15. Smith EL, Hung LF. Form-deprivation myopia in monkeys is a graded phenomenon. Vision Res. 2000;40:371-381.
  16. Zhu X. Temporal integration of visual signals in lens compensation (a review). Exp Eye Res. 2013:69-76.

Atropine For Myopia Control – The Clinical Experience

  1. Chua W-H, Balakrishnan V, Chan Y-H et al. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia. Ophthalmol. 2006;113:2285–91.
  2. Tong L, Huang XL, Koh AL, et al. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia: effect on myopia progression after cessation of atropine. Ophthalmol 2009;116:572-9.
  3. Chia A, Chua W-H, Cheung Y-B et al. Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia: safety and efficacy of 0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.01% doses (Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2). Ophthalmol 2012;119:347–54.
  4. Chia A, Lu Q-S, Tan D. Five-Year Clinical Trial on Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2: Myopia Control with Atropine 0.01% Eyedrops. Ophthalmol 2016; 123;391-9.

Eight Ways To Introduce Myopia Control Into Your Practice

  1. Mutti DO et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43:3633-40.
  2. Mutti DO et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007;48:2510-9.
  3. Rose KA et al. Ophthalmol 2008;115:1279-85.
  4. Walline JJ et al, Eye Contact Lens 2013;39:283-9.
  5. Stapleton F et al. Ophthalmol 2008;115:1655-62.
  6. Bullimore MA et al. Optom Vis Sci 2013;90:937-44.

Myopia control - science or luck?

  1. Si JK, Tang K, Bi HS, Guo DD, Guo JG, Wang XR. Orthokeratology for myopia control: a meta-analysis. Optom Vis Sci. 2015;92:252-7.
  2. Sun Y, Xu F, Zhang T, Liu M, Wang D, Chen Y, Liu Q. Orthokeratology to control myopia progression: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0124535.
  3. Walline JJ, Rah MJ, Jones LA. The Children's Overnight Orthokeratology Investigation (COOKI) pilot study. Optom Vis Sci. 2004;81:407-13.
  4. Jones LA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K. Parental History of Myopia, Sports and Outdoor Activities, and Future Myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:3524-32.
  5. Zadnik K, Sinnott LT, Cotter SA et al (CLEERE Study Group). Prediction of Juvenile-Onset Myopia. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133:683-9.
  6. Rose KA, Morgan IG, Ip J et al. Outdoor Activity Reduces the Prevalence of Myopia in Children. Ophthalmol. 2008;115:1279-85.
  7. Smith ELI. Prentice Award Lecture 2010: A Case for Peripheral Optical Treatment Strategies for Myopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88:1029-44.
  8. Chia A, Lu QS, Tan D. Five-Year Clinical Trial on Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2: Myopia Control with Atropine 0.01% Eyedrops. Ophthalmology. 2016;123:391-9.